# 快速搭建微服务-服务链路追踪

部分内容引用自: 利用Zipkin对Spring Cloud应用进行服务追踪分析

针对服务化应用全链路追踪的问题,Google发表了Dapper论文,介绍了他们如何进行服务追踪分析。其基本思路是在服务调用的请求和相应中加入ID,标明上下游请求的关系。

对用Dapper的开源实现是Zipkin,支持多种语言包括JavaScript,Python,Java, Scala, Ruby, C#, Go等。其中Java由多种不同的库来支持。

Spring Cloud Sleuth是对Zipkin的一个封装,对于Span、Trace等信息的生成、接入HTTP Request,以及向Zipkin Server发送采集信息等全部自动完成。本文介绍如何在Spring Cloud中集成Spring Cloud Sleuth实现服务链路追踪。

Spring Cloud Sleuth的概念图如下:

Spring Cloud Sleuth概念图

# 服务端配置

启动类加上 @EnableZipkinStreamServer 注解声明当前应用为Sleuth服务端。

# 使用MySQL存储链路追踪信息的配置

  • Maven 依赖
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.zipkin.java</groupId>
    <artifactId>zipkin-autoconfigure-ui</artifactId>
    <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-sleuth-zipkin-stream</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-sleuth</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-stream-binder-rabbit</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
    <groupId>mysql</groupId>
    <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
    <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jdbc</artifactId>
</dependency>
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  • 配置信息
spring:
  application:
    name: sleuth-server
  datasource:
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
    username: 
    password: 
    url: 
  sleuth:
    stream:
      enabled: false
  rabbitmq:
    host: 
    port: 5672
    username: 
    password: 

zipkin:
  storage:
    type: mysql
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# 使用ElasticSearch存储链路追踪信息的配置

  • Maven依赖
<dependency>
    <groupId>io.zipkin.java</groupId>
    <artifactId>zipkin-autoconfigure-ui</artifactId>
    <scope>runtime</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-sleuth-zipkin-stream</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-sleuth</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-stream-binder-rabbit</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
    <groupId>io.zipkin.java</groupId>
    <artifactId>zipkin-autoconfigure-storage-elasticsearch-http</artifactId>
    <version>2.3.1</version>
</dependency>
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  • 配置信息
spring:
  application:
    name: sleuth-server
  sleuth:
    stream:
      enabled: false
  rabbitmq:
    host: 172.17.0.1
    port: 5672
    username: guest
    password: guest

zipkin:
  storage:
    type: elasticsearch
    elasticsearch:
      cluster: elasticsearch
      hosts: http://172.17.0.1:9200
      index: zipkin
      index-shards: 1
      replicas: 1
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# 客户端配置

  • Maven 依赖
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-sleuth-stream</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-sleuth</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-cloud-stream-binder-rabbit</artifactId>
</dependency>
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  • 配置信息
spring:
  rabbitmq:
    host: 
    port: 5672
    username: 
    password: 
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# 建表SQL脚本

使用MySQL存储链路追踪信息时,需要使用io.zipkin.java:zipkin-storage-mysql包内的mysql.sql脚本创建数据表,该脚本的内容如下:

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS zipkin_spans (
  `trace_id_high` BIGINT NOT NULL DEFAULT 0 COMMENT 'If non zero, this means the trace uses 128 bit traceIds instead of 64 bit',
  `trace_id` BIGINT NOT NULL,
  `id` BIGINT NOT NULL,
  `name` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
  `parent_id` BIGINT,
  `debug` BIT(1),
  `start_ts` BIGINT COMMENT 'Span.timestamp(): epoch micros used for endTs query and to implement TTL',
  `duration` BIGINT COMMENT 'Span.duration(): micros used for minDuration and maxDuration query'
) ENGINE=InnoDB ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED CHARACTER SET=utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;

ALTER TABLE zipkin_spans ADD UNIQUE KEY(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`, `id`) COMMENT 'ignore insert on duplicate';
ALTER TABLE zipkin_spans ADD INDEX(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`, `id`) COMMENT 'for joining with zipkin_annotations';
ALTER TABLE zipkin_spans ADD INDEX(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`) COMMENT 'for getTracesByIds';
ALTER TABLE zipkin_spans ADD INDEX(`name`) COMMENT 'for getTraces and getSpanNames';
ALTER TABLE zipkin_spans ADD INDEX(`start_ts`) COMMENT 'for getTraces ordering and range';

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS zipkin_annotations (
  `trace_id_high` BIGINT NOT NULL DEFAULT 0 COMMENT 'If non zero, this means the trace uses 128 bit traceIds instead of 64 bit',
  `trace_id` BIGINT NOT NULL COMMENT 'coincides with zipkin_spans.trace_id',
  `span_id` BIGINT NOT NULL COMMENT 'coincides with zipkin_spans.id',
  `a_key` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL COMMENT 'BinaryAnnotation.key or Annotation.value if type == -1',
  `a_value` BLOB COMMENT 'BinaryAnnotation.value(), which must be smaller than 64KB',
  `a_type` INT NOT NULL COMMENT 'BinaryAnnotation.type() or -1 if Annotation',
  `a_timestamp` BIGINT COMMENT 'Used to implement TTL; Annotation.timestamp or zipkin_spans.timestamp',
  `endpoint_ipv4` INT COMMENT 'Null when Binary/Annotation.endpoint is null',
  `endpoint_ipv6` BINARY(16) COMMENT 'Null when Binary/Annotation.endpoint is null, or no IPv6 address',
  `endpoint_port` SMALLINT COMMENT 'Null when Binary/Annotation.endpoint is null',
  `endpoint_service_name` VARCHAR(255) COMMENT 'Null when Binary/Annotation.endpoint is null'
) ENGINE=InnoDB ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED CHARACTER SET=utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;

ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD UNIQUE KEY(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`, `span_id`, `a_key`, `a_timestamp`) COMMENT 'Ignore insert on duplicate';
ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`, `span_id`) COMMENT 'for joining with zipkin_spans';
ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`trace_id_high`, `trace_id`) COMMENT 'for getTraces/ByIds';
ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`endpoint_service_name`) COMMENT 'for getTraces and getServiceNames';
ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`a_type`) COMMENT 'for getTraces';
ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`a_key`) COMMENT 'for getTraces';
ALTER TABLE zipkin_annotations ADD INDEX(`trace_id`, `span_id`, `a_key`) COMMENT 'for dependencies job';

CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS zipkin_dependencies (
  `day` DATE NOT NULL,
  `parent` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
  `child` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
  `call_count` BIGINT,
  `error_count` BIGINT
) ENGINE=InnoDB ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED CHARACTER SET=utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_ci;

ALTER TABLE zipkin_dependencies ADD UNIQUE KEY(`day`, `parent`, `child`);
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